Human Onchocerciasis (OV) is a parasitic disease that can cause severe itching, disfiguring skin diseases, vision impairment and ultimately blindness. Transmitted to humans by biting black flies that breed in fast flowing rivers, OV, also known as “river blindness,” affects an estimated 20.9 million people worldwide (99% of whom live in Africa), according to the WHO.1 

70 million people are at risk for OV in Act | West-supported countries as of FY21 (SAR1 FY22)

An estimated 70 million people are at risk for OV across the 10 countries supported by Act | West. Act | West is working to reduce this number by supporting national ministries of health (MOH) to provide medicines that prevent and treat OV via mass drug administration (MDA), and surveys to assess treatment impact.2 In FY12–FY21, over 298 million OV treatments were provided to over 56 million people (typically on an annual basis over multiple years) across the Act | West portfolio of countries with USAID support.3 

Act | West also provides technical assistance to national MOH on WHO OV guidelines, capacity building in OV data analysis and interpretation, national laboratory capacity strengthening, and strategic planning and protocol review meetings to guide MOH on decisions relating to OV elimination. 

More than 50 million people have been treated for OV with USAID funding since FY12

Across the Act | West portfolio, the program encourages cross-border collaboration activities that are expected to facilitate elimination of disease transmission across national borders. For example, the program created cross-border maps for LF and OV for all the Act | West countries to facilitate cross-border collaboration and coordination on MDA, and it will also support countries with meetings and the implementation of cross-border collaboration activities. Of the 11 Act | West countries, four may be able to stop the national spread of OV by 2025.

Five Act | West-supported countries may be able to complete OV stop-MDA surveys on a national level
  1.  https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/onchocerciasis consulted on 3/26/2020.
  2. Currently, Act | West supports OV MDA in nine countries. OV MDA in Mali will be supported by other donors and no OV MDA is required in Niger.
  3. Through USAID’s Act | West program (FY18–19), ENVISION project (FY11–FY19), and END in Africa project (FY11– FY18).

Onchocerciasis Lifecycle Diagram

Onchocerciasis lifecycle diagram

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